Monday, August 14, 2017

Academy Struggling To Eradicate Sexual Harassment

Originally Published April 21, 2012; Last Updated July 26, 2017; Last Republished July 26, 2017:

Our Naval Academy is struggling to eradicate sexual harassment, assault and rape from its definition of 21st century professional midshipmen esprit de corps.

A lawsuit should not be necessary to compel our mostly cerebral Naval Academy to teach1 tomorrow's naval officers how to balance testosterone with estrogen and brains with brawn, especially our future submarine officers.


UPDATED 08/14/2017 USNA, Class of 2021 Statistics  (2012 Class Profile TBposted)
UPDATED 07/26/2017 Nature, More Universities Must Confront Sexual Harassment

The "new" alt-white-house decision on transgender persons† will likely exacerbate the navy's efforts to solve its sexual harassment problem.

† The chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee has issued a statement questioning the "new" alt-white-house decisiion on transgender persons in our military.

UPDATED 05/01/2017 Navy, No Room for Bystanders in One Navy Team

UPDATED 03/29/2017 NavyTimes, Sailors targeted at more than a dozen Navy commands in growing military nude photo sharing scandal

CNO John Richardson on the Navy's spreading nude photo and video sharing SNAFU (need link to entire original memo) :
"...I’ve heard hundreds of times that 'these actions are being taken by only a small minority...Prove that. If that’s true, then the vast majority of men and women need to stand up and smother this behavior. To become intolerant. To act to put a stop to this. And if you’re one of that minority that just won’t get it, then it’s time for you to leave the Navy..." --NavyTimes quoting CNO, John Richardson-- 
Just a reminder of one of those hundreds of times...we've been told that the sexual harassment will not be tolerated and those (misogynist and miscreants?) that don't get the message will be driven from the ranks...

UPDATED 03/17/2017  Newsweek, Nude Photo Scandal Exposes Marines' Culture of Misogyny and  C-SPAN, Marine Corps Social Media Nude Photos Investigation (Video 2:19:35) and AP, Top Marine Briefs Senators on Nude Photo Scandal

General Neller et al. continues to refer to the Marine Corps ethos chiseled into memorials, spoken in speeches, and printed in presentations, which dramatically deviates from a misogynistic Marine Corps ethos on the ground.

General Neller et al. must change our Marine Corps' deviant on the ground ethos. Pleading for marines to accept our marines regardless of their sexual desirability, genitalia, or gender identity is laughably meaningless3! The commandant is asking marines confronted with a misogynistic closed culture to report someone with whom they may go to war tomorrow!

General Neller must appoint a platoon or company of, preferably multi-gendered marines to publicly investigate and prosecute, in partnership with civilian authorities the entire SNAFU from first photo to last.

UPDATED 03/10/2017 NavyLive, Department of the Navy Leadership Reinforces Importance of Core Values and NavyLive, A Team of Winners and RevealNews, Hundreds of Marines investigated for sharing photos of naked colleagues and MarineTImes, A nude photo scandal has shaken the entire Marine Corps

"When we fight [i.e. maim, kill, and die], we will depend on each other with our lives. The binding energy that allows that to happen is trust. Trust in a teammate’s competency to do things right. Trust in their character to do the right things...Go beyond just treating each other with dignity and respect – that’s the bare minimum. We must [commit and] work hard to make each other better. To build a team of winners."

One step forward and several dozen backwards. Lots of work and research required from both men and women on the long road to extend a professional Marine Corps into the 21st century.

UPDATED 01/05/2017 WH, It's on Us Campus Sexual Assault Summit

UPDATED 05/23/2016 Guardian, US senator says military sexual assault cases show 'troubling command culture'
UPDATED 04/19/2016 WT, Pentagon misled lawmakers on military sexual assault cases

An Associated Press analysis reveals cherry-picked or omitted data was submitted to Congress to give the impression that the military was more willing to prosecute sexual assaults than civil authorities.

It is thought the deception is part of the military's efforts to ensure sexual assault prosecutions remained in the military's "chain of command".

UPDATED 04/07/2016 WP, Why sex assault reports have spiked at the Naval Academy, West Point and the Air Force Academy


and Twitter, It's on US and It's on US dot org

UPDATED 06/16/2015 YahooNews, As activists graduate, campus sexual assault remains in the spotlight
UPDATED 12/08/2014 Reuters, More work needed to end U.S. military sexual assault: Hagel and  Report - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (28M pdf))

UPDATED 08/04/2014 ProPublica, Campus Sexual Assault: What Are Colleges Doing Wrong?
UPDATED 05/01/2014 NYT, Sex Assault Victims in Military More Likely to Step Forward, Report Finds (50% year on year increase in reporting) and SAPR, DoD FY13 Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military (pdf)2  and SAPR, DoD FY13 Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military Press Briefing (pdf)

Navy, 21st Century Sailor Office Director Briefs Sub Community, Senior Leaders

Also,  UPI,  55 colleges under review for mishandling sexual assault and harassment and ED, U.S. Department of Education Releases List of Higher Education Institutions with Open Title IX Sexual Violence Investigations and NotAlone, CDC Survey of Evidence Based Methods for Preventing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Lessons from Research and Practice (pdf) and WH, FACT SHEET: Not Alone – Protecting Students from Sexual Assault

UPDATED 03/20/2014 Reuters, U.S. Naval Academy midshipman acquitted in sex assault case
UPDATED 01/23/2014 UPI, Obama names task force focused on college sexual assault
UPDATED 12/28/2013 VOA, Pentagon Sees 50% Rise in Reported Sexual Assaults in 2013

If an estimated 26K military personnel periodically experience unwanted sexual contact then significant under reporting still exists.

UPDATED 12/23/2013 DefenseGov, Statement by Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response, December 20, 2013

Includes an attachment describing DoD initiatives, as if December 01, 2013 focused on reducing or eliminating sexual assaults involving military service personnel.

UPDATED 10/09/2013 WP, Naval Academy superintendent doesn’t have to recuse himself from sexual assault case

Our U.S. Navy, more often a leading indicator, is lagging while stumbling through its systemic sexual harassment, assault and rape problem—a response, to date more indicative of 1950 than 2013.

UPDATED 08/26/2013 NavyLive, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response at U.S. Naval Academy Program manager for sexual assault prevention and response discusses U.S. Naval Academy's efforts to address sexual harassment, assault and rape.

UPDATED 06/02/2013 Philly->AP, Military's sexual-assault problem has deep roots

It may be necessary to temporarily transfer reporting and responses for all sexual harassment, assault and rape events outside the chain of command until our services develop a fundamental understanding of the problem (i.e. conducts the research).

Expressions of outrage, condemnation, commands or implementation of punitive measures and prohibitions however necessary or well intentioned only demonstrate a profound lack of understanding of the problem.

Expressions of outrage, condemnation, commands or implementation of punitive measures and prohibitions are not substitutes for effective solutions.

UPDATED 05/24/2013 BBC, Obama tells Navy class culture of sex assault must end
UPDATED 05/07/2013 NYT, Pentagon Study Sees Sharp Rise in Sexual Assaults and SFGate, Military sex assault reports up, changes ordered 

Evidently our Air Force is leading the way in demonstrating how not to eradicate our military services' sexual harassment, assault and rape epidemic.

UPDATED 01/09/2013 NavyNews, Readout of SECNAV, CNO Jan. 7 Visit to U.S. Naval Academy

SecNav, CNO, and Superintendent must stop expressing outrage  preaching (cheap but ineffective) and sponsor the novel research required to guide our future naval officers toward a perceptive parity in sexuality—no mean feat.

UPDATED 12/22/2012 NavyLive, Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies

SecNav, CNO, and Superintendent express shock and condemnation over the latest annual report (pdf) that finds no statistically significant changes in prevalence rates of sexual harassment of women at the Naval Academy.

UPDATED 12/09/2012 NavyNews, Sexual Assault Prevention And Response - Fleet (SAPR-F) Master Mobile Training Teams Prepare To Deploy

UPDATED 12/01/2012 NavyNews, Haney Directs Pacific Fleet To 'Stamp Out' Sexual Assault

A stand against sexual assault is necessary but not sufficient to move our professional sailors to a personal perceptive parity in sexuality—it's much different and more complex than the typical, traditional and relatively simple (but still difficult) transition from a civilian to military ethos.

Our navy must sponsor the novel research required to teach and train our professional sailors (especially our submariners) how to develop a personal perceptive parity in sexuality—novel research that may well discover that current military and sexual conquest ethos are mutually enabling codependents!

The prophylactic measures described by COMPAC (i.e. avoid circumstances and events related to poor judgment) will be helpful pending our navy's implementation of a personal perceptive parity in sexuality program.

UPDATED 11/16/2012 NavyLive, Combating Sexual Assault—An All Hands Evolution
Thomson Reuters, Two women say were raped, punished at US military academies


1. An unimaginative course title of: "Beers, Boobs and Boners".

Boobs are midship(wo)men that have not yet mastered the relationship between naval missions and esprit de corps—Boobs that progress to our submarine force, for whatever reason are potentially harmful and dangerous.

A Boner is a Boob triggered event, which by definition is unrelated to either a naval mission or espirt de corps (e.g. sexual harassment, assault and rape).

Beers catalyze Boobs' Boners.

2. There were no restricted or unrestricted reports in the category cadet/midshipmen for the FY2013 reporting period. One aggravated assault case (Art. 120) from the October 2007 to June 2012 reporting period in the category cadet/midshipmen was dispositioned during the FY2013 reporting period.

3. The existing Marine Corps ethos conflicts with changing societal notions of gender identity and roles. The commandant and Marine Corps will need help and time to evolve an improved ethos consistent with changing societal notions of gender and roles. The commandant is likely to learn that an existing ethos is not helpful in changing to another ethos.

The commandant can just say the crazy civilians have ordered a professional gender neutral Marine Corps and we will have a professional gender neutral Marine Corps.

Monday, July 24, 2017

Pirouetting InTo The Past

Our global challenges will not get solved when the United States and Russia are doing clumsy pirouettes on regional stages like two overweight pensioned prima ballerinas reminiscently reliving earlier performances.

Cooperation will more effectively respond to our global challenges than pirouettes into the past.

UPDATED 06/28/2017 PBS, LIVE: Senate Intelligence Committee hearing on Russian interference in European elections and U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; Open Hearing: Russian Intervention in European Elections, including witness list and opening statements.

UPDATED 06/07/2017 AP, Clapper: Russia Meddling Bigger than Watergate

UPDATED 03/30/2017 C-SPAN, Senate Intelligence Committee, Russian Interference [aka "active measures"] in the 2016 Election and Its Capabilities to Impact Elections

An early start to Senate hearings after the House Intelligence Committee Chairman immolated the committee's credibility and immobilized its current work.

In addition to the Senate hearings Congress must launch a select committee, commission, and special prosecutor to investigate Russia's active measures effecting our 2016 Election.

UPDATED 03/23/2017 Vox, From Spy to President: The rise of Vladimir Putin

UPDATED 03/20/2017 C-SPAN, House Select Intelligence Committee, Russian Election Interference FBI Director James Comey and NSA Director Admiral Michael Rogers

UPDATED 03/10/2017 EurasiaNet Op-Ed, Russia: The 1917 Revolutions and the Ambiguity of Post-Soviet Identity

UPDATED 02/27/2017 NewYorker, Trump, Putin, and the New Cold War
UPDATED 02/17/2017 Courant, Coast Guard Tracking Russian Spy Ship Near Submarine Base In Groton and Russian Spies Off The Coast Are Nothing New For An Old Sub Hand and ABCNews, Russian spy ship 30 miles from US Navy sub base


Our media should not combine reports of Russia loitering and snooping in international waters with Russia's possible technical (or worse?) violation of the INF Treaty! The later activity, if accurately reported and accurately verified2 (i.e. deployment of GLCM launcher and violating missile), is orders of magnitude more significant than a bunch of Russian spooks harmlessly floating off Long Island recording signals and images, generally being a nuisance!

A bad attempt to knockoff a good "Saturday Night Live" skit?

UPDATED 07/01/2017 Army, Atlantic Resolve and Reuters, Baltic states seek more NATO help ahead of Russian exercise and Reuter, Russia calls NATO moves in Baltics, Poland and Germany a Threat: RIA and Reuters, Factbox: Minsk agreement on Ukraine

Operation Atlantic Resolve is President Obama and Europe routinely engaging with our NATO Baltic allies before leaving office.

Wonder how our "new" alt-white-house and comrade Putin or is it nemets Adamov are going to work this into their active misinformation-disinformation campaign3?

UPDATED 01/27/2017 SI, Fast Attacks and Boomers: Submarines in the Cold War
UPDATED 12/17/2016 USNI, Dec. 14, 2016 executive summary of the Navy’s 2016 Force Structure Assessment
UPDATED 12/16/2016 USNI, Navy Wants to Grow Fleet to 355 Ships; 47 Hull Increase Adds Destroyers, Attacks Subs and Navy, Secretary of the Navy Announces Need for 355-ship Navy

The Navy's 2016 Force Structure Analysis (FSA) did not come with the SecNav's FSA announcement—for now all we can say is our navy is asking Santa Claus to deliver a lot of Christmas presents! Even Santa Claus is constrained by budget and funding levels!

UPDATED 12/02/2016 Telegraph, Vladimir Putin says Russia wants to normalise relations with US

A Security Council vote is not required to steadfastly support or increase and extend the sanctions imposed on an infandous (odious beyond expression) government.

Normalized relationship with the United States must require Russia's compliance with the Minsk II protocol. Changing or maintaining national borders by use of force or an infinite variety of thuggery is a twenty-first century anathema and affront to all peaceful nations.

UPDATED 11/23/2016 WP, These maps show how Russia has Europe spooked
UPDATED 11/21/2016 WT, Russia withdraws from International Criminal Court after being called out over Crimea invasion
UPDATED 10/13/2016 CSM, Gorbachev calls for peace: Is there a path forward? and  IPI, Interview with Mikhail Gorbachev at the Reykjavik Summit

“Worst Thing” Collapse of Trust Between Major Powers" --Mikhail Gorbachev--

Even worse than mistrust between nations, is the twenty-first century chaos created when any nation's government seeks to impose ad hoc changes to international rules or order by threat, intimidation, force, and coercion, 

UPDATED 08/19/2016 UPI, Russia's military buildup in Arctic plays into global strategy

The sooner all global citizenry live under representative type governments, the sooner nations can get on with doing things that matter!

UPDATED 07/31/2016 CSIS, Undersea Warfare in Northern Europe and CSIS, Report "Undersea Warfare in Northern Europe" (PDF 1.6M) and The Cold War: In Enemy’s Depth - The Submarine War and Cold War Spy Secrets Under the Sea1



1. The turbulent and noisy bubble bursts called cavitation releases enough energy to pit the surface of a polished propeller blade, which further disrupts laminar flow and decreases propeller efficiency (η0)*.

UPDATED 01/19/2017 Some militarists have long speculated that cavitation might change a relatively slow-moving hydro-body into a faster-moving aero-body by enveloping the hydro-body in bubbles (i.e. supercavitition).

A modern sonar women might wonder why you would spend millions on supercavitation to continuously broadcast your submarine's position when you could just turn on the active sonar and ping away?

Modern submarines will typically use pump-jet propulsors (i.e. a shrouded propeller).

* See A.H. Techet, Hydrodynamics for Ocean Engineers: Propellers: Propeller Performance Characterization, 2004 for an introduction to propeller performance.

2. UPDATED 02/18/2017 NATO Defence Ministers take steps to strengthen the Alliance and NATO, Doorstep Statement and Der Spiegel, The Greatest Threat to Security Since WWII (by John Kasich) and Reuters, Trudeau to Trump: NATO is About More Than Spending and NATO Secretary General doorstep statement at the Munich Security Conference, 17 FEB 2017 and NATO Secretary General, Press Conference at Meetings of Defence Ministers, 16 FEB 2017 and  NATO Secretary General, Press Conference at Meetings of Defence Ministers, 16 FEB 2017, 2/2 and AP, Pence: 'We Must Hold Russia Accountable' and VOA, US Defense Secretary Mattis Tells NATO Collective Defense a Bedrock Commitment

UPDATED 07/14/2017 PBS, Inside Russia's Propaganda Machine

UPDATED 07/01/2017 AtlanticCouncil, #DisinfoWeek Countering the Hybrid-Tactic of Strategic Misinformation and Disinformation and Stanford, Digital Disinformation Forum and Facebook, National Democratic Institute

(note: several  problems with the video's sound)

Countering misinformation and disinformation is about more than our "new" alt-white-house, but any American campaign to counter these strategic hybrid-tactics will fail without understanding and acknowledging when such tactics are used against our own citizenry.

Stated differently efforts by Senator Rob Portman to minimize the very active misinformation and disinformation campaign being run by our "new" alt-white-house against our citizenry is itself both misinformation and disinformation!

Originally Published July 26, 2016; Last Updated July 24, 2017; Last Republished July 24, 2017:

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Antisubmarine Sonar May Harm Our Marine Life

Originally Published June 24, 2008; Last Updated July 18, 2017; Last Republished July 18, 2017:

Modern electric submarines have less noisy machinery, greater endurance, reduced indiscretion ratio, and use energy absorbing materials.

This increased "stealth" has pushed our navy's antisubmarine warfare efforts in the direction of using lower frequency, higher power sonar.

However, the new sonar's energy may fatally harm or hinder our whales, dolphins, and perhaps other marine life over disputed distances of between 200 - 482,803 meters—an environmental impact study is needed and our navy is required by law to provide it.

Our navy has sought to unsuccessfully interpose a waiver in lieu of conducting the required study. After several adverse rulings our navy has appealed to the United States Supreme Court for relief from conducting the required study.

The next administration and Secretary of Navy must immediately dismiss Winter v. National Resources Defense Council, Inc. (No. 07-1239) and direct the navy to conduct the needed impact study.

Better stated by the author of the well read book, "The Submarine":
"...The navy thus faced the danger of losing its five-year exemption from the Marine Mammal Protection Act.
Perhaps, however, that problem represented a small debt the navy could repay the creatures whose hydrodynamic beauty had inspired the father of the submarine more than a century earlier"...--Thomas Parrish, Author, The Submarine--


UPDATED 03/02/2016 NOAA, PMEL Acoustics
UPDATED 06/01/2012 Department of the Navy's Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

UPDATED 11/12/2008 Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 07-1239 (.3M pdf). US Supreme Court decision.
"We do not discount the importance of plaintiffs' ecological, scientific, and recreational interests in marine mammals. Those interests, however, are plainly outweighed by the Navy's need to conduct realistic training exercises to ensure that it is able to neutralize the threat posed by enemy submarines. The District Court abused its discretion by imposing a 2,200-yard shutdown zone and by requiring the Navy to power down its MFA sonar during significant surface ducting conditions. The judgment of the Court of Appeals is re-versed, and the preliminary injunction is vacated to the extent it has been challenged by the Navy."--Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 07-1239--
Lower Court Decision against the Navy 518 F.3d 658 (pdf)  


UPDATED 07/18/2017 Vox, Why The Ocean Is A Getting Louder

UPDATED 09/15/2016 PBS, Turning down the volume on human noise pollution for marine life

Not a bad idea to get started on reducing the excessive land noise, too—you can begin with the ridiculously excessive noise created by urban machinery.

UPDATED 09/12/2016 VancouverAquarium, Sonic Sea - Discussion and Sonic Sea Dot Org

UPDATED 07/30/2016 NRDC, Federal Court: Navy Must Limit Long-Range Sonar Use to Protect Marine Mammal and Wired, The Sea Will Get a Lot Quieter Without the Navy’s Whale-Killing Sonar (also, Wkipedia, Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System and  Low Frequency Active Sonar)

...and its not just low frequency sonar...Reuters, Still waters: U.S. to crack down on ocean noise that harms fish.

UPDATED 03/02/2016 NOAA, Seven miles deep, the ocean is still a noisy place
UPDATED 10/23/2014 CSM, What happens when you give a breathalyzer test to a dolphin?
UPDATED 08/21/2014 YourCall, Your Call: What Dangers do Whales Face Today? Post includes links to other resources (i.e. article, video, image, audio, and author etc).

UPDATED 12/25/2013 NYT, California: Sonar Use to Rise in Pacific

More rounds of inefficient and wasteful litigation.

UPDATED 07/03/2013 BBC, Blue and beaked whales affected by simulated navy sonar
UPDATED 05/05/2013 DailyMail, Navy sonar 'did cause mass dolphin deaths' say scientists who blame war games exercise off Cornish coast for strandings

UPDATED 07/16/2012 NYT, Whales, Somehow, Are Coping With Humans’ Din

More research and data are required before stating that whales (and other sea creatures) are coping with human din.

UPDATED 07/07/2012 Discovery, Navy Admits Whales and Dolphins in Harm's Way

UPDATED 06/01/2012 CapeCod, Navy: Three times more sonar testing

UPDATED 05/11/2012 NPR, Navy Study: Sonar, Blasts Might Hurt More Sea Life

UPDATED 01/26/2012 SeattleTimes, Groups sue over Navy sonar use off Northwest coast

Updated 05/04/2009 Santa Cruz Sentinel, New research shows temporary hearing loss possible due to naval sonar in dolphins. Biology Letters, Sonar-induced temporary hearing loss in dolphins.

Updated 01/02/2009 AP, Study: Hawaii''s pygmy killer whales stay close.

Updated 12/29/2008, Navy Settles Worldwide Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Lawsuit.

Updated 10/09/2008, Supreme Court Hears Navy Sonar Case.
"A well-trained Navy is key to defending our security and prosperity."--CNO, Admiral Gary Roughead--
Our navy must learn to defend our security and prosperity with the smallest possible footprint—we are not required to choose between killing our marine life and living in security and prosperity, they are complementary.

Updated 10/08/2008 Google->AP, [US Supreme] Court wrestles with case on Navy sonar, whales

Updated 08/12/2008 NYT, Navy Agrees to Sonar System Restriction and SFGate, Navy to restrict sonar blasts to protect whales, other sea mammals.

Navy agrees to limit its usage of low-frequency high power sonar. Still on appeal from the ninth circuit, in a separate case (see above), is continued usage of mid-frequency sonar.

Updated 07/09/2008 NYT Opinion Rear Admiral Larry Rice, Marine Mammals and the Navy. Submarines are all about optimization under constraints.

In order to optimize given a specific constraint we must understand the constraint(s).

The study the navy seeks to avoid conducting via waiver and litigation is about understanding those constraints marine mammals may impose on our submarines—not four dollar a gallon gas.

It is uncharacteristic for a navy admiral to use demagoguery, PR stunts, and NYT''s editorial pages verses the scientific process and data to optimize performance under constraints.

Updated 07/04/2008 Canadian Press, U.S. Navy has adopted new rules to help protect marine mammals

Updated 07/04/2008 US Navy, Environmental News

New sonar ruling backs global restrictions

Thursday, June 15, 2017

Junior Submarine Officers Press Conference

Originally Published May 25, 2012; Last Updated April 09, 2017; Last Republished April 09, 2017:

Yesterday, a wonderfully diverse2 group of junior submarine officers held a press conference at the Naval Heritage Center, Presidents Room in Washington, DC—just back from their first long deployment!

The group, including the women submariners seems enthusiastic about their new submarine assignment—one is even looking forward to those "really awesome" fast attack missions:
“All of the history and lore of the submarine community really comes back to those really awesome missions that fast attacks do. If it were to be opened, I think there are some of us who probably would be willing to serve on them despite the tight quarters,”--Lieutenant Junior Grade Vanessa Esch--
Lone Sailor
Junior Submarine Officers' Press Conference1

UPDATED 03/25/2017 UTubeNavyDetailers, PERS 42 Submarine Community Screening Board Video (also, peruse the numerous "how to write" a fitrep for LDOs and URLs; it's an art!)

UPDATED 07/10/2015 NIH, Ionizing Radiation in Pregnant Women: A Review of the Safety and Guidelines

Limited sample size focused only on man-made diagnostic and therapeutic x-rays (i.e. not more energetic gamma rays of nuclei)6.


UPDATED 06/15/2017
Navy, On Our Depth One-Six-Zero Feet

UPDATED 04/09/2017 BB, Sea-Air-Space Exposition 2017: Cyber Operations in Sea Services

UPDATED 02/07/2017 Navy, TSC Female Sailors Sought for Submarine Service
UPDATED 10/29/2016 NavyLive, Commissioning USS Illinois (SSN 786) The well-done and official "Silent Service" promo video accompanying this page needs to prominently feature female submariners, too (also, Enlisted Women in Submarines Road Shows Hit Fleet Concentration Areas).


and UPI, First lady Michelle Obama welcomes U.S. Navy's most advance submarine USS Illinois

UPDATED 05/18/2016 NPC, Enlisted Women in Submarines

Fast Attack Submarine Segment Begins ~3:30

UPDATED  03/20/2016 SFT, Navy taps first black woman from ROTC for submarine service
UPDATED 01/14/2015 Riverhead, Making history: Riverhead grad will be one of the first female officers to serve in Navy submarine force

Past social dogma and stereotypes lack any positive or neutral buoyancy in today's modern and extraordinarily challenging submarine environments. Unlike, say an idea for new materials, which are capable of performing in the equally challenging environment of a submarine's nuclear reactor compartment while significantly lessening its overall density7.

Stated differently past dogma and stereotypes in a submarine's environment will sink to collapse depth in a positively reinforced loop of greater density (i.e. greater mass in a smaller volume). Professional submariners work in dedicated teams to ensure their submarine never experiences this singularity.

UPDATED 12/03/2015 NYT, Pentagon Will Open All Combat Roles to Women and NPR, Pentagon Says Women Can Now Serve In Front-Line Ground Combat Positions

UPDATED 10/03/2015 KitsapSun,  Shipyard converting USS Michigan for enlisted women

Article includes rough time frame for integrating noncommissioned women into both Ohio and Virginia class submarine platforms.

UPDATED 07/10/2015 NavyLive, Enlisted Women in Submarines Application Package Milestone Achieved

UPDATED 12/07/2014 UPI, Navy: Submarine women were secretly filmed in shower (UPDATED 10/03/2015 NavyTimes, Tofalo takes reins of submarine fleet and UPDATED 11/17/2015 NavyTimes, 10th sailor disciplined in submarine shower video case)

There's a big difference between submariners viewing the adolescent movie "Porky's" and secretly producing or distributing a "Porky's" starring submariners5.

Surely, all "Porky's" producer(s) or distributor(s) have exited our submarine service and unreproving viewers identified and counseled or reprimanded, at a minimum?

Adolescent shenanigans should not deter or impede our nation and submariners from building a strong world-class 21st century professional submarine service that includes coeds.

UPDATED 05/23/2014 Navy, Six Female Officers to Integrate into Fast Attack Submarines (Atlantic first followed by Pacific around first quarter 2015)

UPDATED 05/24/2013 NavyMil, Naval Academy Graduates Class of 2013 Includes 13 females selected for submarines.
UPDATED 04/11/2013 NavyTimes, Exclusive: Sub boss on op tempo, plans to integrate women
UPDATED 01/25/2013 NavyTimes, Mabus: First women selected for attack subs

Kudos to our SecDef, SecNav, CNO and submariners on speedily moving to a gender neutral professional submarine force!

Responding to the seemingly perpetual "close quarters" argument is as simple as specifying minimum attire4 and encouraging all submariners (male and female) expressing such "contact concerns" to seek career enhancing gender identity training or just incorporate such training into the basic submarine school curricula.

It's bizarre logic that explicitly or implicitly argues that our highly trained and professional submariners must constrain their sexuality with physical barriers—those (male or female) requiring such constraint must not be permitted to become or remain submariners.

UPDATED 12/09/2012 NavyNews, Female Sailors Receive Submarine 'Dolphins'

UPDATED 12/07/2012 NavyNews, First Qualified Female Submarine Officers Receive Dolphins

UPDATED 10/04/2012 Time, More Navy Women Joining the Silent Service

Kudos to the CNO for speedily integrating our female submariners into all submarine platforms and billets—our female submariners will professionally contribute to the success of submarine missions while improving the overall readiness of our submarine force.

UPDATED 08/23/2012 Day, Admiral says USS Miami will be repaired; hints at timing for women submariners at base Article based on recent CNO All Hands Talk at Sub Base, Groton (below):

UPDATED 06/18/2012 KitsapSun, First female submariners find few obstacles

Any submariner qualified to stand your watch while underway does not represent an obstacle, but a sleep potential.

UPDATED 05/31/2012 WH, Women Chart a New Course Onboard U.S. Navy Submarines President, First Lady, SECNAV, SECDEF, VCNO and female junior submariner officers visit at White House.

Female Junior Submariner Officers at White House
UPDATED 05/31/2012 NavyTimes, Women on subs talk mission, working with men

U-T San Diego, Women on Subs Very Successful The article states that Vice Admiral John M. Richardson, Commander, Submarine Forces is close to a decision on whether all submarines will be open to women.

It will be most unfortunate if the a silly3 "close quarters" argument is permitted to impede or delay women's speedy integration into all submarine billets and submarine classes platforms for which they are qualified.

Of more concern is the tall submarine sonar officer (pictured center) who may find very few places on a fast attack submarine (especially Los Angeles-class) to stand up straight!


1. President Theodore Roosevelt is pictured behind the submarine officers.

2. Kudos to our Navy, which is continuing significant efforts to build a fantastically diverse, strong and well trained 21st century submarine force in today's challenging budgetary environment.

3. It's as silly as arguing that women should ride in the back of a spacious pick-up truck, but not its close quarter cab.

In fairness to those whose traditions have routinely excluded women, these are fast evolving and dramatic changes to our submarine force. Shocking customary sensibilities can be destabilizing, particularly if you're an older and aging white congressman.

However, a professional submariner is nothing if not skilled at shocking customary sensibilities and responding to same—in fact the ability to routinely shock customary sensibilities and respond to same is a very good definition of "tactical advantage" that is so vital to success in submarine warfare.

4. For example skivvies and a T-shirt, although some submariners (male and female) may prefer to wear more and privacy barriers (e.g. curtain).

5. It's not like there's a dearth of existing pornography to match any submariner's preferences.

6. Navy policy is to assign or transfer pregnant women to shore duty (Navy Pregnancy FAQ) and (HPS, Factsheet, Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy).

Additional general information on Nuclear Radiation and Health Effects.

Deep divers on the effects of low-level ionizing radiation will eventually peruse: Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR V (1990) and Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2 (2006) and Medline, Radiation Exposure and UNSCEAR, Biological Mechanisms of Radiation Actions at Low Doses (pdf) and EPA Radiation and Risk Assessment.

UPDATED 09/12/2016 NatureCommunications, Mutational signatures of ionizing radiation in second malignancies

7. It's not uncommon for professional submariners to estimate the percentage of total weight and volume allocated to fast-attack submarine propulsion at thirty-five and fifty, respectively.

Is Ohio Class Replacement An Investment

Originally Published March 19, 2013; Last Updated June 15, 2017; Last Republished june 15, 2017:

A recent navy post makes the incredible assertion that the Ohio-class replacement platform is an "...essential investment for our nation..."—expenditure of billions of dollars that returns a rusting radioactive steel cylinder after 42 years doesn't have the typical attributes of an investment.

Moreover, after 42 years the "investment" must be sealed, buried and monitored for hundreds of years, incurring additional expenditures!

Surely, this "investment" requires more justification than reasserting standard bogeymen and committing that the Ohio-class replacement team will act responsibly and hold-down expenditures1?

Before incurring additional billions for more stealthiness to ensure survivability we should debate whether our future prosperity and survivability depend more on transparency than stealthiness?


UPDATED 05/26/2017 Navy, SCN Book 2017 (FY 2018 Budget Estimates)
UPDATED 02/27/2017 Navy, SCN Book 2016
UPDATED 10/07/2016 CRS, Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Program, Oct 2016
UPDATED 09/13/2016 FissileMaterial, Conceptual Research and Development Plan for Low-Enriched Uranium Naval Fuel and FissileMaterial, Report On Low Enriched Uranium for Naval Reactors' Cores  and NAP, Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors (2016)
UPDATED 03/10/2016 CRS, Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background andIssues for Congress

Includes the text of 10 U.S.C. 2218a, National Sea-Based Deterrence Fund (NSBDF), an off navy balance sheet appropriation and accounting gimmick to fund the SSBN(X). And unsurprisingly a significant amount of estimated cost saving assumes the creation of the NSBDF!

Congress must hold more meaningful4 public hearings and publish detailed data and assumptions, which forms the basis for the SSBN(X) current cost estimates (e.g. 22% cost-to-weight improvement over Virginia-class; Virginia-class commonality cost saving, etc.)

UPDATED 03/01/2016 FAS, Status of World Nuclear Forces
UPDATED 02/10/2016 SecNav, Proposed 2017 Obligation Authority, Ohio-Class-Replacement, Adv. Procurement 2017-2021
UPDATED 02/09/2016 FAS, Declassified: US Nuclear Weapons At Sea
UPDATED 01/16/2016 CSIS, Chinese Strategy and Military Modernization in 2015: A Comparative Analysis#Figure 10.7: Force Structure of the PLA Navy 1985-2015-Part I; Submarines

UPDATED 01/14/2016 CRS, Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans:Background and Issues for Congress (courtesy FAS)
UPDATED 01/06/2016 NavyCNO, A Design for Maintaining Maritime Superiority
UPDATED 08/03/2015 Wikipedia, Ohio Replacement Submarine
UPDATED 03/19/2015 FAS, Naval Nuclear Propulsion: Assessing Benefits and Risks
UPDATED 01/19/2014 BOS, US nuclear forces, 2014 and FAS, New START Data Shows Russia Reducing, US Increasing Nuclear Forces
UPDATED 12/21/2013 CBO, Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2014 to 2023  (check annual updates for latest revisions) and CBO, Long-Term Implications of the 2014 Future Years Defense Program and CBO, An Analysis of the Navy’s Fiscal Year 2014 Shipbuilding Plan

UPDATED 05/06/2013 FAS, Russian SSBN Fleet: Modernizing But Not Sailing Much

"...Rather than opposing further reductions, U.S. lawmakers should support limitations on the growing asymmetry between U.S. and Russian strategic nuclear forces – an asymmetry that is significantly in the U.S. advantage – to help limit further concentration of nuclear warheads on Russia’s declining numbers of strategic missiles. That would actually help the national security interests of all."2--FAS--


UPDATED 06/15/2017 U.S. Navy, On Our Depth One-Six-Zero Feet

UPDATED 05/26/2017 HASC, FY18 Priorities for Nuclear Forces & Atomic Energy Defense Activities

UPDATED 05/23/2017 Navy, Department of the Navy Releases Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Proposal FY2018 proposes to fully fund the Columbia-class platforms program!? (article provides links for those wanting to drill down--$19.9B for ship building!) and Navy, Secretary Mabus Names Three Vessels During Ceremony and SecNav, DON Budget Materials FY2018 and DoD FY 2018 Budget Estimates May 2017 Navy Justification Book Volume 1 of 1 Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy (pdf 2.8M)
Courtney Statement On Navy Budget and Seapower, HASC Seapower Leaders Optimistic on Submarine Construction Industrial Base

Curiously, the article announcing the navy's FY2018 budget release states that the Columbia-class program is fully funded: "...fully fund the critical Columbia-class Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN) program..."?

The above presentation does not mention that the $49.5B proposed procurement budget includes a fully funded Columbia-class ballistic missile submarine platform program? The rear-admiral does mention National Sea-Based Deterrence Fund, which is a five-year (FY2022) off-navy-budget account to temporarily park funds for Columbia-class advance procurement and construction of: bow, Xstern, hull, missile control, joint British common missile compartment tubes, propulsion plant, propulsor prototype, weapons, weapons handling, air conditioning unit, diesel generator set, and reverse osmosis unit etc. for submarine platforms SSBN 826 (lead platform), 827, 828 and 829.

It seems our navy and its boosters on the Seapower Subcommittee et al. intend to build an entire new class of submarine using an opaque off-budget National Sea-Based Deterrence Fund account? When are these accumulating costs returning to a budget? which budget? how much?

The stated justification is to "improve the probability of on time delivery" of the lead Columbia-class platform!

UPDATED 05/04/2017 CAP, The Case Against New Nuclear Weapons and  Brookings, Assuring a ready fleet: A discussion with Admiral John Richardson and Brookings, How to Ensure That the U.S. Navy Remains Effective

UPDATED 04/09/2017 SeaPowerMag, VCNO Moran: Columbia SSBN On Schedule, But Margin is Tight
UPDATED 04/01/2017 USDEF,Stratcom Commander Speaks at Conference of Military Reporters, Editors Association Conference, March 31, 2017

No, General John E. Hyten our nuclear weapons are not "just high explosives" they are nuclear weapons and your profession is not peace, your profession is war!!! The general fits well within our "new" alt-white-house et al. where up is down; facts are fake; chemical reaction are nuclear; peace is war...5 etc.

...and General Curtis LeMay is not a poster boy for a costly strategic triad upgrade but the need for free press oversight of our military and decreasing our obscene stockpiles of nuclear weapons (or as you prefer to call them high explosives), particularly during the period our "new" alt-white-house is governing or more accurately not governing.

UPDATED 01/27/2017 PopSci, The Nuclear Arsenals of China and the U.S.
UPDATED 01/19/2017 InsideDef, Navy formally announces Columbia-class milestone decision A mini-design decision, which says we kinda know what we're buying, accompanied by a [big] "ballpark" guess about its cost along with many laments over how to "find the money" to pay for their lowball guess.

Here's how the submarine platform's biggest booster, Representative Courtney, (CT-02) describes it: Columbia-Class Achieves 'Milestone B' As The National Sea Based Deterrence Fund Comes Online and the hometown newspaper CTMirror, Navy moves forward on new Columbia-class submarines.

UPDATED 12/17/2016 USNI, Dec. 14, 2016 executive summary of the Navy’s 2016 Force Structure Assessment
UPDATED 12/16/2016 USNI, Navy Wants to Grow Fleet to 355 Ships; 47 Hull Increase Adds Destroyers, Attacks Subs and Navy, Secretary of the Navy Announces Need for 355-ship Navy

The Navy's 2016 Force Structure Analysis (FSA) did not come with the SecNav's FSA announcement—for now all we can say is our navy is asking Santa Claus to deliver a lot of Christmas presents! Even Santa Claus is constrained by budget and funding levels!

UPDATED 07/08/2016 CSIS, Delivering on the Future of Submarine Warfare

Navy (N97 and PEO Submarines) presents some general expectations for the Ohio-class replacement platform.

UPDATED 05/10/2016 SI Opinion, Scale back U.S. nuclear weapons and stop a new arms race

UPDATED 03/30/2016 SeaPower, Navy Selects Electric Boat as Prime for New SSBN and Reuters, U.S. names General Dynamics prime contractor for new submarines

UPDATED 04/02/2016 PBS, As Pentagon overhauls nuclear triad, critics advise caution and PBS Newshour Takes On The Holy Nuclear Triad and POTUS Nuclear Security Summit Press Conference (comments @ ~32:00 on U.S.-Russia sustain or reduce nuclear inventory)

Bill Perry is being very generous when he refers to our present nuclear strategic lunacy as "belt and suspenders for the belts and suspenders". The current nuclear strategic lunacy has more to do with the past balance of petulant service chiefs than any current balance of nuclear terror, retaliatory and probability-of-kill mathematics.

Let's immediately begin eliminating all ground and air based ICBMs and platforms, go slow on scaling down the Ohio-class replacement platform and get serious about the elimination of all nuclear weaponry.

UPDATED 02/29/2016 Brookings, Uncharted seas: Maritime strategy for a new era of naval challenges (video) and USNI, Navy Revising Force Structure Assessment In Light Of Increased Attack Sub, Other Ship Needs
UPDATED 02/03/2016 Reuters, Exclusive: U.S. budget plan includes over $13 billion for new submarine - sources Hopefully, a lot more details and a lot less hyperbole will follow to inform our desire for de-extincting and bulking up these "Cold War" dinosaurs?

UPDATED 01/14/2015 SeaPower, NAVSEA Commander: Navy is 10 Subs Below its Needs

NavSea will always be "X" number of subs below that required to conduct the nation's business.

UPDATED 01/14/2016 Diplomat, Pentagon Approves Request for Proposals for US Navy’s Next-Generation Ballistic Missile Submarine
UPDATED 01/05/2015 USN, The Navy's new leader says a nuclear force second to none is essential to US survival and JT, Top U.S. admiral sees ‘nuclear punch’ from submarines key to America’s survival

Our nuclear budgets must be supported with transparent facts and reasoned analysis, not oxymoronic hyperbole. (A Design for Maintaining Maritime Superiority@page 6)

UPDATED 08/08/2015 SeaPower, Richardson: New Ballistic-Missile Sub ‘Absolutely Critical’ for the Country (also, Chief of Naval Operations Confirmation Hearing and Advance Questions for Admiral John M. Richardson, USN Nominee for the Position of Chief of Naval Operations)

UPDATED 08/01/2015 PBSNewsHour, Can U.S. afford plan to buy 12 nuclear-armed subs? The short answer is NO!

UPDATED 06/08/2014 NTI, Senate Bill Would Create Separate Fund for New Trident Submarine

The price of navy weapons platforms (and weapons) are on a half parabolic trajectory requiring our navy to seek new and additional funding sources. Instead of addressing these stratospheric prices within its current shipbuilding budget our navy and congressional budgeteers are seeking to off-load the entire weapons platform to another funding source external to our navy's current shipbuilding plan and budget.

Fortunately, those seriously seeking to control or reduce the stratospheric prices of major weapons systems view these budgetary maneuvers as transparent gimmicks. So for now, our navy must fund the long-lead research for its Ohio-class replacement submarine platform from unobligated funds within its current shipbuilding budget.

Navy and congressional budgeteers and Ohio-class sponsors will treat these "unobligated funds" (now obligated to the Ohio-class replacement submarine platform) as a loan to be reimbursed by the new funding source if and when it is created by Congress.

If Congress declines to create a new and additional funding source for the Ohio-class replacement our navy must charge its current shipbuilding budget—requiring it to: increase its current shipbuilding budget: or decrease the number of ships it builds; or decrease the per ship price; or more likely, some combination of all three.

UPDATED 05/07/2014 DefIndustryDaily, CMC Program Defining Future SSBN Launchers for UK, USA

Series of past articles.

UPDATED 04/11/2014 NTI, Navy Maps Out Details of Future Ballistic-Missile Subs and MilitaryDotCom, Admiral: Crimea Proves Nuclear Subs Still Needed and USNI, Navy Has Finalized Specifications for New Ohio-Replacement Boomer

A quasi-base-line3 for an Ohio-class replacement platform is the easy part—finding an estimated $60 billion 2010 dollars (likely under estimated by a minimum of 40%) for 12, sixteen tube platforms will be more challenging.

It's unclear how Putin's behavior as a "shirtless hooligan" over Crimea "proves" a need for a sea-based nuclear missile platform, as Military News and Open Source Naval Intelligence headline implies the rear admiral asserts?

The above attribution was made at the Navy League, Sea-Air-Space 2014 Exposition, which may encourage or induce, if not explain a speaker's hyperbolic expressions?

UPDATED 03/01/2014 NTI, Markey Files Bill to Cut $100 Billion in Nuclear Arms Funds

Includes reducing the number of Ohio-class replacement (aka SSBN-X) platforms to eight—hopefully, just the start of an accelerating trend toward zero nuclear warheads?

UPDATED 01/19/2014 NTI, U.S. to Start Cutting Submarine Missile-Launchers Next Year

It's always a little jilting to read the adverb "only" in articles discussing the number of deployed nuclear warheads.

UPDATED 12/21/2013 Reuters, U.S. nuclear weapon plans to cost $355 billion over a decade: CBO report
UPDATED 06/05/2013 USN, Buying Submarines in an Age of Austerity
UPDATED 06/04/2013 ACA, Nuclear Sub Costs Complicate Navy Plans
UPDATED 05/17/2013 NavyLive, Navy Responds to Debate Over the Size of the SSBN Force

So, let's eliminate all of our nuclear warheads and not sweat the small stuff, like the unknowable optimal number of strategic platforms and warheads for a given deterrent coverage.

Is the admiral really arguing that our probability of attacking Russia and China has increased as a result of their reduced number of patrols or number of strategic platforms?

UPDATED 05/06/2013 WP, Budget cuts could reshape the country’s ship supply, official says

NavyLive, NavyLive, Ohio Replacement Class SSBNs an Essential Investment


1. Our capable submarine designers have made tremendous gains in basic and applied marine research; virtual design; modular manufacturing; and materials processes but a platform requirement of 42 years of continuous stealthiness must await further research.

If given such a requirement there is no doubt that any Ohio-class replacement team would act responsibly and hold-down expenditures until all the money runs out or relief from the requirement is provided.

The post may be emphasizing 42 years of continuous stealthiness not as a hard requirement but as awkward justification for purchasing a new platform as opposed to modifying an existing platform?

2. Our policymakers and navy leadership must jettison their harmful, obsolete and costly notion that striving to reduce or accommodate the insecurities of our putative, imaginary or real adversaries displays weakness—exploiting putative, imaginary or real weaknesses is simply a circular method that minimizes trust and cooperation while increasing costs for minimal, zero or negative gain!

3. Those familiar with major weapons system development and procurement are painfully aware that a "final baseline" does not exist.

The term "final baseline" is just part of a choreographed congress-navy-contractor tragic-comedy (some might say subterfuge) used to authorize a "low-cost" (yes, $60 billion is the low cost!) weapons system while producing and delivering a "high cost" weapons system!

The term "final baseline" means that the navy, contractor, and congress have agreed to pretend that the total weapons system cost will be $60 billion--nobody, but the uninitiated believes the estimate is true--yet, everybody will continue to pretend it is, until it isn't!

When the weapons system "cost growth" (the term overrun will not be used) exceeds $60 billion the recriminations, joint storytelling and "improvement programs" will begin.

If the overrun costs can be kept to a minimum by changing the baseline configuration or reducing the procurement quantity or both the major weapons system will proceed.

If the cost overrun is excessive the major weapons system is canceled, a very undesirable outcome for the navy (loses assets); contractor (loses revenue and goodwill); congress (loses district jobs).

Rarely, a major weapons system will lose its navy or congressional sponsors or both and will be canceled with or without a cost overrun.

4. Meaningful entails more than asking a SecNav or CNO or NavSea if they could use an SSBN(X); or listening to congressional committee boosters from Connecticut testify while the witnesses listen.

5. The general's misstatement about the equivalency of tactical and strategic nuclear weapons is likely for Russia's consumption? Putin is throwing a temper tantrum and using psychological warfare by deploying tactical (short-range) nuclear missile ground launchers (i.e. 9K720 Iskander), which may also launch strategic (longer range) nuclear missiles. The general is likely indicating to Putin that for purposes of retaliation he'll make no distinction between tactical and strategic nuclear missiles.

China is quietly (i.e. minus the temper tantrums) using a similar tactic (FUD) when it deploys strategic nuclear missile launchers ostensibly as a conventional "aircraft carrier killer". A missile on any ballistic trajectory during conflict may trigger a nuclear response from warring warriors.

Such are the dangerous and foolish physical and psychological games potential adversaries (usually putatively weaker) sometimes play, which makes a strong case for eliminating nuclear weapons.